quarta-feira, 13 de fevereiro de 2013
We will know a little more about the
greatest philosophers of the "Age of Enlightenment", in which
Most were from France.
These criticized, especially in his works:
• Remnants feudal;
• The absolutist regime and commercialism;
• The Church's influence on society;
• The inequality of rights and duties between individuals.
Among the French Enlightenment stood out:
Montesquieu (1689 - 1755) - His major work was entitled The Spirit
Laws and published in 1748. The theoretical addressed the various forms of
government, exposing the need to separate the functions of the state in three
independent powers. His work had a great influence on the formation of
national governments in the post-revolutionary period.
Voltaire (1694 - 1778) - Known as the most important philosopher of the Enlightenment, wove several critical privileges of the nobility and clergy, being forced into exile in England. Among his major works stand out
"English Letters" and "Candide" and has also collaborated in the preparation of
"Encyclopedia". Strongly criticized absolutism of divine right,
proposing a more active participation of the bourgeoisie in the aspects of government as a way to secure peace and freedom. As Montesquieu
his ideas influenced not only other theorists, but rulers general.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778) - Defended the lower classes
detriment of bourgeois society, being considered the thinker
most radical of his time. His ideas are based on justice and
equality through sovereignty popular and are summarized in
his works: "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality among Men"
and "Social Contract".
At first, the author accuses of destroying private property freedom
social. In the book "Social Contract", Rousseau claimed to reduce
inequality, men should consent to a social contract,
whose essence was the will of the community prevail over the will
individual. For the philosopher, the government was the "minister of the sovereign," that is, if the people were deemed sovereign, his power was subjugated to same.
In summary, the modern thinkers also known
Enlightenment broke as a paradigm of the time,
to strongly criticize the old regime, characterized
by absolutist power.